Guttural pouch mycosis is a rare but very serious disease in horses. It is caused by a fungus that infects the lining of the guttural pouch, usually on the roof of the guttural pouch. The infection can cause some deep damage to the arteries and nerves. … The nerve damage caused by guttural pouch mycosis is another story.
How do you treat an infected guttural pouch?
Prognosis for guttural pouch empyema is good with medical treatment, which often involves daily lavage (flushing) of the infected pouches and antibiotic therapy. Systemically ill horses might also require supportive care, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to help control fever and malaise.
What clinical signs are associated with an infection of the guttural pouch?
Clinical signs include intermittent purulent nasal discharge, painful swelling in the parotid area, and in severe cases, stiff head carriage and stertorous breathing. Fever, depression, and anorexia may or may not be seen. Diagnosis is determined by endoscopic examination of the guttural pouch.
How is guttural pouch empyema treated?
Antifungal drugs that are infused directly into the guttural pouch are the usual treatment for guttural pouch mycosis. If damage to the arteries has occurred, it may be necessary to perform surgery to close the affected blood vessel. This can help prevent a fatal hemorrhage.
What infectious agent is usually involved in guttural pouch mycosis?
The most common fungal organism associated with guttural pouch mycosis is Aspergillus spp (see Aspergillosis). Clinical signs arise from damage to the cranial nerves and the arteries within the mucosal lining of the guttural pouch.
What causes guttural pouch infection?
The most common disease of the guttural pouches is called guttural pouch empyema. This is caused by a bacterial infection, usually secondary to strangles. In this disease, the thin lining of the guttural pouch becomes inflamed and the guttural pouch becomes filled with thick pus.
What is the purpose of guttural pouch?
Their anatomical association with the upper respiratory tract suggests that the horse’s guttural pouches might function during selective brain-cooling to maintain blood carried by the internal carotid arteries (ICA) at a temperature below the core temperature during hyperthermia.
What is a guttural pouch wash?
Sterile saline is then injected through the scope and into the guttural pouch. This saline washes the mucous and cells from the inside of the guttural pouch and is sucked back out to form the sample which will be sent to the lab. A separate wash sample must be taken from each guttural pouch.
What nerves run through guttural pouch?
The guttural pouch has close association with many major structures including several cranial nerves (glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory, hypoglossal), the sympathetic trunk and the external and internal carotid arteries. The pouch directly covers the temporohyoid joint.
What causes nasal discharge in horses?
The common causes of nasal discharge include strangles, sinus infections, tooth problems, and guttural pouch infections. Bilateral (both nostrils) occurs when the source of the mucus is distal to the nasal openings. This would include strangles and guttural pouch infections.
What is in the guttural pouch?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Guttural pouches are large, auditory-tube diverticula that contain between 300 and 600 ml of air. They are present in odd-toed mammals, some bats, hyraxes, and the American forest mouse.
What does empyema mean?
Empyema is a collection of pus in the cavity between the lung and the membrane that surrounds it (pleural space).
What is the horse disease strangles?
Strangles is an infectious, contagious disease of Equidae characterized by abscessation of the lymphoid tissue of the upper respiratory tract. The causative organism, Streptococcus equi equi, is highly host-adapted and produces clinical disease only in horses, donkeys, and mules.
What are Chondroids?
Chondroids are firm “stones” of pus that form here and complicate treatment of infection. In milder cases, guttural pouch infections respond to systemic antibiotics or flushing of the pouch. More difficult cases, and those with chondroids often require surgery.
What is Viborg’s triangle?
VIBORG specified the term “triangle”, and identified its boundaries in both the standing and recumbent horse (with head extended), as the tendon of insertion of the sternocephalic muscle or the breast- jaw muscle as he termed it, the ramus of the mandible and the linguofacial vein.