What is the treatment for West Nile virus in horses?
There is no specific treatment for West Nile encephalitis in horses. Supportive veterinary care is recommended.
How do horses get the West Nile virus?
How do horses contract West Nile virus? A. Horses contract WNV when a mosquito that has previously fed on an infected bird bites them. Birds circulate high levels of the pathogen in their blood and serve as the sole source of the virus for mosquitoes.
How common is West Nile virus in horses?
Since 1999, over 25,000 cases of WNV encephalitis have been reported in U.S. horses. Horses represent 96.9% of all reported non-human mammalian cases of WNV disease.
When should a West Nile vaccine be given to horses?
First dose: 3 to 4 months. Second dose: 1 month later (plus 3rd dose at 6 months in endemic areas). Annual booster, prior to expected risk. Vaccinate semi-annually or more frequently (every 4 months), depending on risk.
Are horses a dead end host for West Nile virus?
West Nile Virus Transmission Cycle
After about a week, infected mosquitoes can pass the virus to more birds when they bite. Mosquitoes with West Nile virus also bite and infect people, horses and other mammals. However, humans, horses and other mammals are ‘dead end’ hosts.
What is the most common disease in horses?
- Common Equine Diseases. …
- Equine Influenza (“Flu”) …
- Rhinopneumonitis/Equine Herpesvirus (EHV) …
- Equine Encephalomyelitis (“Sleeping Sickness”) …
- Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIA) …
- West Nile Virus. …
- Streptococcus equi (“Strangles”) …
- Tetanus (“Lockjaw”)
Is West Nile virus contagious?
The West Nile virus is not contagious. It cannot be transmitted from person to person. A person cannot get the virus, for example, from touching or kissing a person who has the disease or from a health-care worker who has treated someone with the disease.
What are the symptoms of the West Nile virus in humans?
Symptoms of severe illness include high fever, headache, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, vision loss, numbness and paralysis. Severe illness can occur in people of any age; however, people over 60 years of age are at greater risk.
Where did West Nile virus come from?
WNV was first isolated in 1937 from a woman in the West Nile district in Uganda. It is currently the arbovirus with the widest geographic distribution and can be found in parts of North and South America, Africa, Europe, Asia and Oceania.
Is West Nile virus in horses reportable?
Cases of WNV infection in horses (and other domestic animals) are reported to the animal health and public health federal-provincial-territorial entities. West Nile virus is also a notifiable disease to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE).
Is there a shot for West Nile virus?
There are no vaccines to prevent or medications to treat WNV in people. Fortunately, most people infected with WNV do not feel sick. About 1 in 5 people who are infected develop a fever and other symptoms.
What is the most important vaccine your horse should get?
Important Considerations and Conclusions
Again, ALL horses should receive the core vaccines (rabies, EEE/WEE, tetanus, and West Nile Virus).
Do horses need to be vaccinated every year?
Core Vaccines. DO have your horse vaccinated with all core vaccines, which are those the American Veterinary Medical Association and AAEP recommend for all horses, every year, regardless of location, gender, or age.
What vaccines do horses need yearly?
Summary. To recap, your horse should at least receive EWT/WN and Rabies vaccinations once a year. In general, we recommend that your horse receive EWT/WN, PHF/Rabies, Strangles, and Flu/Rhino in the Spring, and PHF and Flu/Rhino in the Fall.