How do you prevent equine encephalomyelitis in horses?
Prevention: Keep all horses up to date on vaccinations. Initial vaccination is followed in 4 to 6 weeks with a booster; yearly revaccination is recommended. More frequent boosters (i.e. twice yearly) are recommended in areas with year-round mosquito seasons and in endemic areas.
How can encephalitis be prevented in horses?
There is no vaccine to prevent EEE virus infection. The best way to prevent EEE is to protect yourself from mosquito bites. Use insect repellent, wear long-sleeved shirts and pants, treat clothing and gear, and take steps to control mosquitoes indoors and outdoors.
What causes equine encephalomyelitis?
Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is an extremely rare but serious and often fatal infection that causes encephalitis or inflammation of the brain. It is spread by the bite of a mosquito infected with EEE virus (EEEV). EEEV can also infect a wide range of animals including mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
What are the symptoms of encephalomyelitis in horses?
Signs include the sudden onset of fever, chills, body and joint aches. Infection can develop into severe encephalitis, resulting in headache, disorientation, tremors, seizures and paralysis. Permanent brain damage, coma and death may also occur in some cases.
What is the most common disease in horses?
- Common Equine Diseases. …
- Equine Influenza (“Flu”) …
- Rhinopneumonitis/Equine Herpesvirus (EHV) …
- Equine Encephalomyelitis (“Sleeping Sickness”) …
- Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIA) …
- West Nile Virus. …
- Streptococcus equi (“Strangles”) …
- Tetanus (“Lockjaw”)
How is encephalomyelitis treated in horses?
Like all disease caused by alphaviruses, eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) has no specific treatment. Focus management primarily on supportive and preventive measures. Pharmacologic therapy consists primarily of antipyretics, analgesics, and anticonvulsants.
What are the first signs of EEE?
Symptoms of EEE generally occur four to 10 days after a person has been infected and include:
- high fever.
- neck stiffness.
Can your body fight off EEE?
There is no specific treatment for EEE. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses, and no effective anti-viral drugs have been discovered. Severe illnesses are treated by supportive therapy which may include hospitalization, respiratory support, IV fluids, and prevention of other infections.
Is encephalitis contagious in horses?
A horse affected with EEE is not contagious and poses no risk to other horses, humans or birds. Carrier status: Infected horses cannot transmit the disease to other horses. The virus can only be transmitted to a horse via an insect vector.
What animals are affected by encephalomyelitis?
The equine encephalomyelitis viruses usually cause illness only in equine species and humans. These viruses can also infect a variety of other animals, often asymptomatically. Eastern equine encephalitis virus infects horses, pigs, birds, bats, reptiles, amphibians, forest-dwelling marsupials and rodents.
Is there a horse vaccine for EEE?
In the United States, equine alphavirus encephalitides for which vaccines are available include eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE), and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE). EEE has been reported in North and South America.
What are the symptoms of equine infectious anemia?
Although clinical signs can differ in range and severity between individuals, cases of EIA can present with many or most of the following:
- low platelet count.
- increased heart and respiration rates.
- hemorrhages on mucous membranes.
How many times should you deworm a horse?
Facts: 1. Each horse should be dewormed every 6 months with an Ivermectin product (Spring and Fall). Ivermectin is a larvicidal (will kill parasite larvae), and if used every 6 months on each horse, large strongyles will be eliminated from your farm.
What is sleeping sickness in horses?
Equine Sleeping Sickness occurs when the virus enters the horse and causes inflammation of the brain and spinal cord. The most common clinical sign of infection is depression. The horse may develop a fever, lose their appetite and act colicy.
What causes Rhinopneumonitis in horses?
Equine rhinopneumonitis or Equine viral abortion is caused by infection with equine herpes virus type 1 (EHV1) which causes rhinopneumonitis, abortion, neonatal mortality and occasionally encephalomyelitis in horses and donkeys. EHV1 occurs world-wide, in all countries with significant horse industries.